Fluid Mechanics: With Problems and Solutions, and an Aerodynamic Laboratory

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Introduction to CFD Analysis with Practical Examples

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KG, Germany KG, Germany, Language: English. Brand new Book. Despite dramatic advances in numerical and experimental methods of fluid mechanics, the fundamentals are still the starting point for solving flow problems. Airplanes that meet the Federal Aviation Regulation FAR Stage 3 noise limits have provided substantial noise reductions relative to older airplanes. Nevertheless, many airports impose additional noise restrictions that penalize payload or range by requiring operations at reduced takeoff weight or that prohibit night operations.

It is clear that pressure to further reduce noise will continue to increase. To advance the state of the art to significantly reduce noise, concerted and continuing research and development efforts are required. The agency should also lead the development of novel noise reduction concepts. Unless the United States mounts concerted efforts to augment the development of advanced computational and experimental capabilities, it will not be possible to achieve technology parity with similar European efforts. In particular, U. In the absence of these acoustic research facility capabilities in the United States, our industry and government research and development efforts typically utilize foreign facilities.

In order to compete, it is necessary for the United States to support the development of appropriate facilities.


Many airports around the world are reaching capacity operations, limited in part by wake vortex separation requirements on landing and takeoff. Continued growth of the air transport system will require increases in airport capacities. Finding ways to reduce airplane separation requirements would contribute to that goal. Studies of wake vortices, prediction methods, means of vortex detection and avoidance, and means for promoting rapid dissipation of wake vortices should be continued and expanded.

Unfortunately, work has not begun on carrying out this plan. NASA should play a leading role in the development of the enabling technologies in these areas. There should be a combined program of flow physics and CFD, which together will increase understanding of the complex flow physics and impart an ability to predict and compute such flows.

Comprehensive programs that address the issues and opportunities in noise research, wake vortices, and airplane separation requirements are needed. NASA is the appropriate organization to develop the technology and means for testing at the highest Reynolds numbers, which includes advanced flow diagnostic instrumentation development, innovative wind tunnel circuit components, the possible use of heavy gas, moderate cryogenics, and other options for high Reynolds numbers, half-model testing techniques, and wind tunnel wall interference minimization.

The resources required in particular for the development of a very high Reynolds number wind tunnel are large, but investment for that purpose is essential if the U. Investments by NASA in the technology areas described above will benefit all segments of the industry, not just large commercial transports. Commuter and short-haul aircraft will benefit from advances in the enabling technologies of flow physics, CFD, and experimental research.

The technology of integrating propulsion systems and airframes involves the ability to assess and control the development of wave drag, induced drag, and profile drag. Advances in CFD over the past decade have contributed greatly to this technology. It is anticipated that ongoing CFD developments will lead to even further refinements. Two areas remain in which technology improvements are needed.

One is the development of wind tunnel test techniques and powered propulsion simulators to better represent installed power effects of the forthcoming generations of very high bypass ratio engines in wind tunnel testing. The other is the need to predict the installed characteristics of thrust reversers, both computationally and with wind tunnel testing techniques.

These are areas in which NASA can make important contributions. Although the fundamental physical principles of subsonic and supersonic airflow around aircraft are the same, design approaches to minimizing drag are greatly affected by the cruise speed. This section of the report discusses cruise performance in the two speed ranges separately.

Long-haul subsonic transports are now, and will be for the foreseeable future, the major product of the civilian aviation industry and infrastructure. As noted in Chapter 2 , from to , aerodynamic efficiency will have increased by approximately 10 percent, and if the current rate of improvement is maintained, another 5—10 percent is projected by the year However, ordinary development or evolution alone will not keep the United States at the forefront in the world market.

Although continued evolutionary advances in methods and processes experimental, theoretical, and computational are needed to provide continued improvement of aerodynamic design technologies, demonstrated innovative technologies are necessary in the longer term to provide opportunities for significant improvements in performance. The flow on most of the surfaces of an aircraft is turbulent.

Laminar flow control LFC , hybrid laminar flow control, and natural laminar flow are promising sources of skin-friction drag reduction on aerodynamic surfaces. Laminar flow nacelles are also being studied by NASA. If full-chord laminar flow can be maintained in this fashion, fuel savings of up to 25 percent could be realized. Transition is extremely sensitive to freestream conditions e. Also, of perhaps greater significance have been the questions of fabrication cost and operational cost and maintainability. Engineering and optimization tools have outpaced the state of the art in transition prediction theory.

This method is also limited because it cannot account for the effects of surface roughness and freestream disturbances. Knowledge of transition—so very important to the success of LFC techniques—is, in general, limited to the simplest of geometries. Efforts to better understand the transition flow physics are under way to provide valuable guidance for the surface roughness and freestream disturbance problems. In both cases, extensive laminar flow was successfully achieved on the upper surface of the swept wing through the use of suction.

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Very low suction levels were required, with power penalties of the order of 1 percent. Studies with engine noise indicated no effect. The use of a Krueger nose flap eliminated a potential buildup of insect debris on the leading edge.

Pascal's Principle, Hydraulic Lift System, Pascal's Law of Pressure, Fluid Mechanics Problems

The remaining challenges to the implementation of laminar flow technology in large subsonic transport designs include validation of the technology in actual airline service operating environments and exploration of the technical issues associated with making laminar flow operate effectively on the inboard portion of the wings of very large aircraft. Recognizing the challenges, during NASA and the industry developed a cooperative research plan; however, these efforts have been delayed by overall program constraints.

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Meanwhile, the Europeans have rapidly advanced their laminar flow efforts. Airbus plans for laminar flow technology validation include extensive large-scale testing, targeting technology validation as early as The most promising technique demonstrated thus far has been passive control by riblets, tiny streamwise grooves on the aircraft surface. This device is useful for surfaces on which laminar flow is very difficult to achieve e. The approach was used. Bushnell, D.


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Malik, and W. Zierap and H. Oertel, eds.